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The Walls are large structures that surround the territory where the remnants of humanity live, and protect them from the Titans that rule the world outside. They were built more than a century ago, when humanity was brought to the edge of extinction at the hand of the aforementioned Titans.
The Walls reach about 50 meters in height and four or five times a human's height below the ground, and is rumored to be as strong as bedrock. However, the Female Titan was able to damage them when she attempted to climb over it, and the Beast Titan was able to remove pieces of Wall Rose and throw them.
It was discovered by a miner with twenty years of experience who attempted to dig under Wall Rose to reach Wall Sina and after digging to the bottom, that the ground below them was made of the same material as the Wall and that they also seem to extend surrounding human territory underground.
The distance from Wall Maria to Wall Rose is about 100 km, the distance from Wall Rose to Wall Sina is about 130 km, and the radius of Wall Sina is about 250 km. Assuming the walls to be perfect circles, this would make the total area inside the walls 723,823 km², just over twice the size of real world Germany.
Few people know about the Titans within the Walls, or that they were created from Titans. The Survey Corps learned of their existence when the Female Titan damaged the surface of Wall Sina, exposing the face of a huge Titan. Pastor Nick, a foremost member of a cult which considers the Walls to be holy, knew of the Titans within them, but would reveal no more under the interrogation of Hange Zoë. It is unknown how commonplace this knowledge is within the Wall Cult.
More than 100 years ago, humans were brought to the brink of extinction at the hand of the Titans "almost overnight". The anime states that in response to this, the survivors made huge Walls to protect their last stronghold. However the manga seems to indicate that the Walls existed before the Titans did.
The current status of the Walls is chaotic. Shiganshina District was the first city to fall when Wall Maria was breached, leading to a massive slaughter and prompting humanity to abandon the entire perimeter and the remaining cities along the wall as they attempted to consolidate their losses. After the fall of Wall Maria, humanity was pushed into Wall Rose. Soon after a massive campaign to retake Wall Maria was launched as nearly 250,000 conscripted soldiers were sent out to wipe out the Titans; this campaign ended in disaster and saw the near-total annihilation of the army tasked with this mission. Within five years after that, the Trost District was breached, though it ultimately survived due to the intervention of Eren Yeager, while also ensuring the local population's survival. Some time later, Wall Sina and the Stohess District were heavily damaged when Eren did battle with the Female Titan. Then the population of a small village named Ragako was overtaken by Titans. Afterwards the military took the royal capital, then a Titan twice the size of the Colossal Titan appeared and caused major damages to Orvud District.
After five years of abandonment, the Survey Corps returned to Shiganshina District and successfully sealed the hole in Wall Maria. However, the mission to retake the Walls is not over yet.
Names and other information
|Wall Maria is the outermost Wall of the human kingdom. Like the other Walls, Wall Maria is approximately 50 meters in height. The distance between Wall Maria and Wall Rose is around 100 km. Five years ago, it was breached by the Colossal Titan and Armored Titan, after about 100 years of peace and prosperity, and was lost to the Titans. Several decades earlier a group of Titan worshippers opened the gates and let a Titan in. The Titan eventually left, but the reason was unknown, some said that a group of brave people lured it out, but others speculated that it just got too tired of eating.|
|Wall Rose is the second outermost Wall following Wall Maria. The distance between Wall Rose and Wall Maria is 100 km, and the distance between Wall Rose and Wall Sina is 130 km. It was breached by the Colossal Titan 5 years after the fall of Wall Maria, but the breach was later sealed by Eren Yeager with assistance from the Military. It was thought to have been breached again after Titans appeared inside it.|
|Wall Sina is the innermost Wall protecting the kingdom where the king and other civilians reside. It is 250 km radius. The distance between Wall Sina and Wall Rose is around 130 km. The city inside Wall Sina is protected by the Military Police serving under the king.|
Stohess District (east)
Ehrmich District (south)
Yarckel District (west)
Anime and Manga Differences
In the anime, when Titans suddenly appear the survivors of the attack make a walled stronghold for humanity to reside in. But the inside covers of the manga suggest that the walls existed some time before the Titans appearance.
Every district within Wall Sina is said to have an underground town, which would make the total amount of districts within that wall 10. The underground is poorer and slightly more dangerous than Wall Maria. Since it's several meters below the surface, most people die because of the lack of sunlight, others because of dehydration, deadly infections or murderers.
- Titans primarily targeted the southern region, even before the loss of Wall Maria. As such, they are considered the most dangerous and least desirable places to live in. 
- The northern districts are considered the most desirable region, due to minimal Titan activity. However, the weather is brutally cold and makes life for residents very difficult. Hajime Isayama suggested they may have hot springs to make up for the harsh weather.
- Isayama has described the region as relatively cold, rarely exceeding 30 degrees even on the hottest summer days.
- "Rose" was the East Germany's secret codename plan to build the Berlin Wall.